AP Biology Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis

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Paul Andersen explains how pigments can be separated using chromatography. He shows how you can calculate the Rf value for each pigment. He then explains how you can measure the rate of photosynthesis using leaf chads and water containing baking soda.

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Scratching the Surface: Soil biology in agriculture, March 2017 – Joel Salatin

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Polyface farm

Principles and strategies to create symbiosis and synergism, the presentation covers the nuts and bolts of pasture-based, beyond-organic regenerative farming.

Photosynthesis | Photosynthesis in plants | Photosynthesis – Biology basics for children | elearnin

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Photosynthesis | Photosynthesis in plants | Photosynthesis – Biology basics for children | Science | elearnin


Hello Kids ….

Do you know how plants make their own food? No??

This video elaborates the process of Photosynthesis, by which plants make their own food.

Photosynthesis is the process used by the plants to make their food. In simpler terms, conversion of light energy into chemical energy by plants is called photosynthesis. This chemical energy is used by the plants for growth and nourishment. Photo means light and synthesis means putting together.

Humans need some essential things like fire, water, vegetables etc to cook food.
Similarly, to make their own food, plants also need some essential factors like Light, water, nutrients, soil etc

Plants get light from the sun, water from the ground and carbon dioxide from air. All these factors including air, water, carbondioxide and sunlight together help plants churn out their own food.

Plants have tubes called Xylem located in the stem through which the water from the ground is sucked into the leaves. This system works similar to the humans sucking in liquids through a straw. The Xylem is spread throughout the different parts of plant including stem, branches, all the way upto their leaves, and transports vital nutrients to the entire plant. Xylems in plants are like blood vessels in the human body that act as an important means of transport for water and nutrients.

Leaves on the plants have pores, very similar to pores on the skin of our body. These pores are called stomata. These stomata are responsible for the exchange of gases. The carbon dioxide present in the air, which is responsible for photosynthesis, enters the plant through these stomata. Oxygen also comes out from the same stomata.

Leaf has important cells called Mesophyll cells. These cells contain a green color component called chloroplast. This chloroplast is responsible for the green color of plants and leaves.

Once the carbon dioxide and water reach the chloroplasts, in the presence of sunlight, the process of photosynthesis starts to take place. The following reaction takes places in the leaves of the plant during photosynthesis:

Carbon dioxide + water + [in the presence of light energy] → Oxygen + glucose (or Carbohydrates)

The products formed are glucose and oxygen. Carbohydrates, which are a form of glucose, are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water.
Glucose is used by the plants for the growth. Some of the glucose is used immediately and the extra glucose which is not used is stored in the form of starch, in the leaves. Some amount of glucose is also stored in the roots of the plants. The extra glucose is used to perform photosynthesis when there is no sunlight.

Oxygen is given out into the air through the stomata in the process of photosynthesis. The oxygen that is released is used by human beings to breathe in during their respiration process.

Ever wondered why this process is called photosynthesis? The word photosynthesis is a combination of two words: Photo and Synthesis. Photo means light in Greek and Synthesis means putting together or combining. Hence, photosynthesis literally means combining water and carbon dioxide in the presence of light.

So, the essential factors for photosynthesis to take place include:

• Sunlight

• Water

• Carbon dioxide

Underwater photosynthesis takes place at a slower pace than the normal photosynthesis. This is because energy from the sun is absorbed by the water layers and only some amount of the energy reaches the plant.

There are some plants which don’t need the process of photosynthesis to grow. Such plants include Mushroom, Venus flytrap etc. Mushroom gets the food from the ground and its surrounding areas. Venus flytrap traps and catches small insects which come near the leaves and eat them.

Nonvascular Plants | Biology

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Segment from the program Kingdom Plantae: Builders of Biomes.

DVD Description
Our Plant DVD starts by looking at the watery origins of modern land plants before looking at the adaptations that have evolved in plants and enabled them to spread to nearly every corner of the Earth. These adaptations include: roots, which anchor plants and absorb water and nutrients from the soil; vessels, that conduct water and nutrients throughout a plant; lignin, which stiffens and supports plants enabling them to grow taller; pollen, which frees plants from a dependence on water for reproduction; and fruits, which entice animals to unwittingly spread a plants seeds far and wide.

Plant Growth: Auxins and Gibberellins | Biology for All | FuseSchool

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If a plant has enough water, minerals and energy it will grow right? Well sort of… but there is more to it – like why do plants bend towards the light and not just grow straight? And how come the stem grows up but the roots grow down? It isn’t as if a plant has eyes to tell it where the sun is.

Plants are packed full of hormones, sending messages around to its different parts. Where humans have the creatively named ‘growth hormone’, plants have hormones called auxins.

Auxin is produced in the stem tips and roots, and controls the direction of growth in response to different stimuli including light and gravity. Having been made in the tips of the stems and roots, auxin is moved in solution by diffusion to older parts of the plant. In the stem, the auxin causes the cells to change in elasticity. More elastic cells absorb more water, and can grow longer.

Strangely though, stems and roots respond differently to high concentrations of auxins. Whilst the stem cells grow more, the root cells actually grow less. So auxins make plants grow, but why do they bend towards the light? How do they know to do this when they don’t have eyes?

The bending happens because the light hits the one side more and breaks down the auxins in that side of the stem. So then growth slows down on the ‘light’ side. The faster growth on the ‘dark’ side causes the shoots and leaves to turn towards the light – which is ideal for the plant for photosynthesis.

Auxin is produced in the tips of growing shoots. If the tips are cut off, then no auxin can be produced and so no plant growth. If the tips are covered, whilst auxin is still produced, light cannot break it down and so phototropism cannot occur: the plant just grows straight up and does not bend towards the light.

Auxins have the opposite effect on root cells. In roots, auxins cause less growth. The shaded side of roots contain more auxins, and so they grow less. This enables the ‘light’ side of the roots to grow more and bend away from the light.

And if that wasn’t weird enough, we have opposites happening with auxins and gravity too. In a horizontal root, the bottom side contains more auxins and grows less, so the root bends downwards in the direction of gravity. So positive geotropism. But of course, the stem responds differently.

In a horizontal stem, again the bottom side contains more auxins because it is less directly hit by sunlight. But because auxins cause growth in stems, the bottom side grows more causing the stem to bend upwards, against the direction of gravity. So negative geotropism.

But I am giving auxins too much credit; they don’t work alone. They have a partner in crime; cytokinins. You don’t need to know anything about these hormones other than the fact that they work alongside auxins. There is another plant hormone that you do need to be aware of… Gibberellins.

Once a seed germinates, the roots and shoots start to grow. But for this, the seed needs energy. Luckily, the seed releases a hormone called gibberellin which causes the starch in the seed to turn into sugars and provide the seed with energy to grow. As well as causing shoot growth, gibberellins can also stimulate flowering and fruits in some plants. And they also work with auxins to cause stem elongation.

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Xylem and Phloem – Transport in Plants | Biology for All | FuseSchool

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Plants have a transport system to move things around.

The xylem moves water and solutes, from the roots to the leaves in a process known as transpiration.

The phloem moves glucose and amino acids from the leaves all around the plant, in a process known as translocation.

The xylem and phloem are arranged in groups called vascular bundles. The arrangement is slightly different in the roots to the stems. The xylem are made up of dead cells, whereas the phloem is made up of living cells.

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The Plants & The Bees: Plant Reproduction – CrashCourse Biology #38

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Hank gets into the dirty details about vascular plant reproduction: they use the basic alternation of generations developed by nonvascular plants 470 million years ago, but they’ve tricked it out so that it works a whole lot differently compared to the way it did back in the Ordovician swamps where it got its start. Here’s how the vascular plants (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms) do it.

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Table of Contents
1) Sporophyte Dominance 01:55
2) Ferns 02:14
3) Gymnosperms 03:35
4) Angiosperms 05:33
5) Truth or Fail: Fruit Edition! 08:28

References for this episode can be found in the Google document here:

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Plant Cells: Crash Course Biology #6

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Hank describes why plants are so freaking amazing – discussing their evolution, and how their cells are both similar to & different from animal cells.

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This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this video, in the Google Document here:

Table of Contents annotations:

1. Re-watch the whole video 0:00
2. Introduction 0:00
3. Plant Evolution 0:56
4. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells 2:33
5. Cellulose and Lignin 3:58
6. Plastids and Chloroplasts 7:05
7. Central Vacuole 8:10

TAGS: crashcourse, biology, hank green, plants, plantae, chemistry, energy, learn, course, lycophyte, scale tree, carboniferous, angiosperm, eukaryotic, nucleus, prokaryotic, membrane, cytoplasm, organelle, cellulose, lignin, energy, photosynthesis, plastid, chloroplast, central vacuole, turgor pressure Support CrashCourse on Subbable:

The Sex Lives of Nonvascular Plants: Alternation of Generations – Crash Course Biology #36

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Hank introduces us to nonvascular plants – liverworts, hornworts & mosses – which have bizarre features, kooky habits, and strange sex lives. Nonvascular plants inherited their reproductive cycle from algae, but have perfected it to the point where it is now used by all plants in one way or another, and has even left traces in our own reproductive systems.

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Table of Contents
1) Key Traits of Nonvascular Plants 01:42
2) 3 Phyla of Bryophytes 02:52
3) Alternation of Generations 04:33
a) Gametophyte Generation 05:04
b) Sporophyte Generation 05:25
c) In Vascular Plants 07:48

References for this episode can be found in the Google document here:

crash course, biology, plants, nonvascular plant, algae, simple, liverwort, hornwort, moss, reproduction, reproductive cycle, sex life, trait, conductive tissue, water, moisture, osmosis, diffusion, growth potential, small, cell wall, cellulose, bryophyte, phyla, species, fossil, haploid, gamete, diploid, alternation of generations, gametophyte, sporophyte, asexual, chromosome, sporangium, spore, antheridia, archegonia, calyptra, germinate, germination, gymnosperm, pollen, angiosperm Support CrashCourse on Subbable:

Vascular Plants = Winning! – Crash Course Biology #37

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Hank introduces us to one of the most diverse and important families in the tree of life – the vascular plants. These plants have found tremendous success and the their secret is also their defining trait: conductive tissues that can take food and water from one part of a plant to another part. Though it sounds simple, the ability to move nutrients and water from one part of an organism to another was a evolutionary breakthrough for vascular plants, allowing them to grow exponentially larger, store food for lean times, and develop features that allowed them to spread farther and faster. Plants dominated the earth long before animals even showed up, and even today hold the world records for the largest, most massive, and oldest organisms on the planet.

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Table of Contents
1) 3 Tissue Types 02:37
2) Primary Growth 03:04
3) Secondary Growth 03:28
4) Dermal Tissue 04:47
a) Epidermis 04:54
5) Parenchyma Cells 05:39
6) Vascular Tissue 05:58
7) Xylem 05:58
8) Collenchyma 07:10
9) Sclerenchyma 07:35
10) Ground Tissue 08:25
a) Mesophyll 08:17
b) Photosynthesis 08:47
11) Phloem 09:54


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Structure of the Leaf | Plant Biology | The Fuse School

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Plants make food through photosynthesis. Using their leaves, plants combine sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make glucose and oxygen. A leaf is like a plant’s food factory, collecting all of the components into one place so that photosynthesis can happen.

Let’s start with sunlight. The top of a leaf is exposed to the most sunlight, and so the cells specialised for trapping light are on top of the leaf. These specialised cells are called palisade mesophyll cells. They are packed full of chlorophyll – the green chemical that plants used to absorb light. Most leaves have a large surface area so that they can trap as much sunlight as possible.

Moving onto carbon dioxide. This is where the bottom of the leaf comes in. There are little pores on the bottom of the leaf called stomata. The stomata open up so that carbon dioxide can diffuse into the leaf. The stomata are controlled by ‘sausage shaped’ guard cells, which open up to let carbon dioxide in. The guard cells can also close the stomata, to stop other things inside the leaf, like water, from escaping.

The carbon dioxide comes in from the stomata, and then makes its way up through the leaf, through the gaps in the spongy mesophyll layer in the bottom part of the leaf and heads up to the palisade cells where photosynthesis occurs. Leaves are thin so that the carbon dioxide doesn’t have too far to travel.

The final reactant needed for photosynthesis is water. Water comes into the plant through the roots, moves up the stem and enters the leaf through the vascular bundle. The vascular bundle contains a hollow tube specifically for water movement called the xylem. The veins on a leaf are actually the vascular bundle, allowing water to be spread out through the leaf.

The leaves palisade cells now have sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. They are ready to photosynthesis to make glucose and oxygen.

How do leaves manage to let in the wanted things (like water and carbon dioxide) but prevent unwanted things like bacteria getting in and also prevent the reactants from escaping before being used? At the top and bottom of the leaf are epidermis cells. These produce a protective waxy cuticle layer. The waxy cuticle seals up the leaf so that the only way in and out are through the stomata, which are regulated by the guard cells.

So from top to bottom, a leaf’s structure:
– Waxy cuticle and epidermis cells
– Palisade cells (where photosynthesis occurs)
– Spongy mesophyll (with vascular bundle running through for water transport)
– Epidermis and cuticle, with stomata and guard cells spread throughout (allowing carbon dioxide in).

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CBSE Class 12 Biology, Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants-2, Female Reproductive Organs

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CBSE Class 12 Biology, Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants-2, Female Reproductive Organs.
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